The values of satoyama landscape, Japanese traditional agricultural landscape, has been increasingly recognized in Japan, as provider of a bundle of ecosystem services to humans while harnessing unique and higher level of biodiversity. It has been understood that continuation of appropriate management of landscapes has created sustainable landscapes benefitting both humans and nature. The challenges faced to the satoyama landscapes today are more on the underuse of natural resources rather than overexploitation which comes from depopulation in rural areas and decline of agricultural sectors. Responding to this, new ways to maintain satoyama landscape is being explored by linking urban and rural areas and creating mutual benefits.
“Tribal parks” - are an example of Aboriginal people asserting their rights to govern and use land in ways without the prior approval of a national government. In Canada, some tribal parks have been converted into co-managed national parks (e.g. Gwai Hannas national park), while other exist in an interesting legal gray area where they form partnerships with some levels of government but are not formally recognized by others (e.g. Tla-o-qui-aht Tribal Park ). These parks are interesting because they represent a way in new way in human, and historical values have been incorporated in the protection of ecosystems. They are also interesting because they have been asserted not by the state, but by colonized people who have historically been displaced by the state. By enhancing the diversity of land ownership and land governance systems these tribal parks potentially provide opportunities for experimentation and learning that can benefit broader society.