What type of wildlife conservation management is most effective and sustainable? CAMPFIRE (Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources), designed and managed entirely by Africans, was created in the mid 1980's. It encourages local communities to make their own decisions about wildlife management and control so that plants, animals and people - the whole ecosystem - all benefit. Campfire also helps to provide legal ways for such communities to raise money by using [...]
“Tribal parks” - are an example of Aboriginal people asserting their rights to govern and use land in ways without the prior approval of a national government. In Canada, some tribal parks have been converted into co-managed national parks (e.g. Gwai Hannas national park), while other exist in an interesting legal gray area where they form partnerships with some levels of government but are not formally recognized by others (e.g. Tla-o-qui-aht Tribal Park ). These parks are interesting because they represent a way in new way in human, and historical values have been incorporated in the protection of ecosystems. They are also interesting because they have been asserted not by the state, but by colonized people who have historically been displaced by the state. By enhancing the diversity of land ownership and land governance systems these tribal parks potentially provide opportunities for experimentation and learning that can benefit broader society.